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Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions.

Safety Ratings

Can ANCAP safety ratings be compared across vehicle categories (e.g. SUV vs. hatchback)?

ANCAP results can be used to compare the protection offered to occupants and pedestrians across a range of the most common crash types for vehicles of similar size and weight (i.e. within the same vehicle category). Care must be taken when comparing results for different vehicles across different categories as only those vehicles of similar mass can be correctly compared.

To view the ANCAP safety ratings of over 700 vehicle models, search our Safety Ratings section.

What is the difference between ANCAP safety ratings and the Used Car Safety Ratings?

ANCAP safety ratings are published for a range of new passenger, sports utility (SUV) and light commercial vehicles (LCV) entering the Australian and New Zealand markets, using a rating system of 0 to 5 stars. ANCAP star ratings indicate the level of safety a vehicle provides for occupants and pedestrians in the event of a crash, as well as its ability — through technology — to avoid or minimise the effects of a crash.

Focussing on second hand cars, the Used Car Safety Ratings (UCSR) program is funded by many of the same member organisations which make up ANCAP's membership, but is compiled by the Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC).

The difference between the ANCAP (new) ratings and UCSRs (used) lies in the way in which the ratings are determined. ANCAP safety ratings are determined based on data obtained through the simulation of common crash scenarios undertaken in a controlled laboratory, whereas UCSRs are determined through the analysis of crash statistics (police reports etc.). ANCAP safety ratings demonstrate a vehicle's level of occupant and pedestrian protection whereas UCSRs provide a crash rating for the driver only (with a secondary indication of vehicles that provide a higher level of protection for other road users).

UCSRs are available for a select number of vehicles, generally models that are at least three years old. ANCAP safety ratings apply to new vehicles, and with ANCAP safety ratings having been published since 1993, a significant number of vehicles tested by ANCAP form part of Australia and New Zealand's used car market. Both ANCAP and UCSR provide ratings for a similar range of vehicle categories.

ANCAP recommends 5 star rated vehicles.

I can’t find an ANCAP safety rating for my car. Has it been crash tested?

The vehicles tested through the ANCAP safety rating program include new passenger, SUV and light commercial vehicles entering the Australian and New Zealand markets and are selected based on a variety of factors including the volume of vehicles sold. Unfortunately not all vehicles can be tested however if you would like to check if there is an ANCAP safety rating available for your car, contact us.

Will ANCAP safety ratings increase beyond 5 stars (i.e. 6 stars, 7 stars and so on), or will 5 stars remain the highest ANCAP safety rating?

No. Rather than increase the number of stars awarded to a vehicle, ANCAP will maintain its 0-5 star rating scale, with 5 stars remaining the maximum safety rating possible. We are however making it more challenging for vehicle brands to achieve 5 stars by regularly updating our test requirements to promote continuous improvements in vehicle safety.

Are ANCAP safety ratings ever updated?

Once an ANCAP safety rating is awarded to a vehicle, it retains that rating in perpetuity as, at the time at which it was assessed, it achieved all of the necessary minimum requirements to enable the awarding of that rating. If improved safety features are added to a rated vehicle (as a result of mid-cycle production changes), ANCAP may undertake a re-assessment and publish a revised rating. In addition, if safety features are removed, ANCAP may re-assess the rating.

The "TESTED" rating year which defines the requirements against which a vehicle has been assessed, is noted within each of the Technical Reports published for each vehicle rated by ANCAP. The rating year is also shown within the star rating logo for each model.

Of all the vehicles rated by ANCAP, which is the safest?

ANCAP evaluates the likelihood of serious injury for drivers, front seat passengers, and pedestrians involved in the most common types of crashes as well as a vehicle's collision avoidance capabilities. The test results do not prove which is the safest car in all types and severities of crashes. Consumers should look for vehicles that have earned the maximum 5 star ANCAP safety rating as these vehicles offer a high level of protection and are equipped with effective restraint systems and life-saving safety features and technologies.

To view all 5 star rated cars, visit our safety ratings section.

Safety Requirements

Is ANCAP testing mandatory?

No. ANCAP is an independent, non-regulatory consumer information organisation which exists to enhance the safety of the Australian and New Zealand vehicle fleets by encouraging the highest levels of vehicle safety. ANCAP works to complement the regulatory Australian Design Rules (ADRs) as set by the Australian Government.

What are the Australian Design Rules (ADRs)?

The Australian Design Rules (ADRs) are the legislated standards for new vehicles as set by the Australian Government. The ADRs set the minimum safety, emission and anti-theft standards for all new vehicles entering the Australian market, from cars and motorcycles through to buses and prime movers.

The ADRs are different for each vehicle type. For example, the ADRs for passenger cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles (LCVs) are different to those for buses and heavy goods vehicles.

Who is responsible for the Australian Design Rules (ADRs)?

The Vehicle Safety Standards Branch within the Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Cities & Regional Development (DITCRD) has responsibility for maintaining the Australian Design Rules (ADRs).

A full list of ADRs is available on the DITCRD website.

Are the Australian Design Rules (ADRs) unique to Australia?

The Australian Design Rules (ADRs) for passenger cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles (LCVs) are almost fully harmonised with the international, United Nations Regulations, with the exception of:

ADR 34 - Child restraint anchorages

ADR 69 – Full frontal crash test (UN R137 test results accepted)

ADR 81 – Fuel consumption label (tests are to UN Regulations)

I have heard that the Australian Design Rules (ADRs) are out-of-date and can prevent the introduction of new vehicle safety technology. Is this true?

The ADRs do not prevent the introduction of new safety technology. For example, the majority of new passenger cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles (LCVs) are now being sold in Australia with autonomous emergency braking (AEB) well ahead of the introduction of any ADR. Other new safety technology, such as lane keeping assist (LKA), is also provided in new vehicle models, again without any regulatory requirement.

ANCAP's non-regulatory approach encourages all vehicle brands to strive for the highest safety standards, beyond regulatory requirements.

How does ANCAP relate to the Australian Design Rules (ADRs)?

ANCAP’s role is complementary to regulation. It encourages vehicle brands to include the latest vehicle safety technology beyond the minimum regulatory standards, promoting quicker introduction of new technology.

Why do we need ANCAP (non-regulatory) as well as the Australian Design Rules (regulatory)?

One of the main benefits of ANCAP is its flexibility to encourage the swift adoption of important vehicle safety features and technologies ahead of the development of a regulation. ANCAP is able to use early research to identify and encourage safety features and technologies that are potentially beneficial without the constraints required for regulatory action.

As a result, Australasian consumers have access to a wide range of vehicles that significantly exceed the minimum regulatory standards. For example:

ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC): ANCAP began encouraging the fitting of ESC well ahead of regulation, making ESC a mandatory ANCAP requirement to be eligible for a 5 star rating. This encouragement resulted in high rates of fitment (more than 90%) by the time the UN Regulation was finalised and the Australian Design Rule (ADR) introduced in 2012.

AUTONOMOUS EMERGENCY BRAKING (AEB): ANCAP has been encouraging fitting of AEB and these efforts have resulted in the availability of AEB increasing very quickly (from approx. 35% in 2015 to more than 75% of the Australian new car market in 2019) with more than 50% of vehicles now having AEB fitted as standard. The UN Regulation for AEB has recently been finalised it is expected AEB will become a mandatory requirement (ADR) in similar timeframe to Europe (i.e. around 2022).

Shouldn't the Government regulate to require all vehicles to meet ANCAP standards?

It is important that ANCAP's non-regulatory function exists parallel to regulation, as promoting and educating consumers to influence consumer choice will encourage the market supply and uptake of advanced safety features and technologies quicker than the regulatory process.

Accessories & Modifications

Does ANCAP test bullbars?

ANCAP does not test vehicles with bullbars fitted.

Does the fitting of bullbars to a vehicle affect its ANCAP safety rating?

ANCAP does not test vehicles with bullbars fitted.

ANCAP recognises there are some circumstances where consumers choose to fit a bullbar (for example, operational requirements), however with advancements in vehicle design and the introduction of driver assistance technologies such as autonomous emergency braking (AEB), consumers need to ensure the fitting of a bullbar or other accessory/modification does not affect the safety performance of the vehicle.

The fitting of incompatible bullbars can have an adverse effect on the crash performance (occupant protection) provided by a vehicle as well as interfere with the safe and effective operation of collision avoidance systems and sensors.

As part of the ANCAP rating a vehicle must also provide protection to pedestrians and other vulnerable road users that may be struck by the vehicle. ANCAP’s testing protocols for pedestrian impacts are not designed to assess impacts with bullbars or other frontal protection devices. The fitting of a bullbar may degrade of performance in the case of a collision with a pedestrian or cyclist.

Some bullbar manufacturers offer products (rated prior to the introduction of more stringent ANCAP assessment protocols from 2018) which have been shown not to affect the ANCAP safety rating of a specific vehicle model. See list below.

Ford Everest
October 2015 onwards

Part numbers:
•   Ford-supplied steel bullbar Part No. EB3B-17A912-##
•   Ford-supplied steel bullbar Part No. JB3B-17A912-##

Ford Ranger
September 2015-onwards

Part numbers:
•   Ford-supplied steel bullbar Part No. EB3B-17A912-##
•   Ford-supplied steel bullbar Part No. JB3B-17A912-##
•   ARB Ranger Deluxe Bullbar Part No. 3440400
•   SmartBar bullbar SA175
•   Smartbar SA180 StealthBar

Ford Ranger
March 2014-August 2015

Part numbers:
•   Ford-supplied alloy bullbar Part No. AB3917A912AA
•   Ford-supplied steel bullbar Part No. AB3917A912##
•   SmartBar bullbar SA149
•   ARB Ranger Deluxe Bullbar Part No. 3440400

Ford Ranger
October 2011-April 2014

Part numbers:
•   Ford-supplied bullbar Part Number AB3917A912AA
•   SA149 SmartBar bullbar
•   ARB Ranger Deluxe Bullbar Part Number 3440400

Holden Colorado
July 2016-onwards

Part numbers:
Holden Genuine Accessories:

•   Bull/Roo Bar Part No. 92506927 / 92508023
•   Bull/Roo Bar Part No. 92506933 / 92508024
•   Safari Bar Part No. 92507720 / 92508028
•   Nudge Bar Part No. 92288726
•   Nudge Bar Part No. 92288725
•   Under Body Protection Package Part No. 95711084 / 95711094
•   Winch Bar Part No. 92510327
•   Winch Bar Part No. 92510326

Holden Colorado
2012-June 2016

Part numbers:
•   Holden-supplied bulbar Part Number 92255761/010
•   Smartbar bullbar SA153

Holden Trailblazer
July 2016-onwards

Part numbers:
Holden Genuine Accessories:

•   Bull/Roo Bar Part No. 92506927 / 92508023
•   Bull/Roo Bar Part No. 92506933 / 92508024
•   Safari Bar Part No. 92507720 / 92508028
•   Nudge Bar Part No. 92288726
•   Nudge Bar Part No. 92288725
•   Under Body Protection Package Part No. 95711084 / 95711094
•   Winch Bar Part No. 92510327
•   Winch Bar Part No. 92510326

Isuzu MU-X
April 2017-onwards

Part numbers:
•   Isuzu Alloy Bull Bar P/No 5-8676-1813-X
•   Isuzu Steel Bull Bar P/No 5-8676-1812-X

Isuzu MU-X
2013-March 2017

Part numbers:
•   Isuzu steel bullbar Part No. 5867609080
•   Isuzu alloy bullbar Part No. 5867609070

Isuzu D-Max
November 2016-onwards

Part numbers:
•   Isuzu Alloy Bull Bar P/No 5-8676-1639-X (projector headlights)
•   Isuzu Steel Bull Bar P/No 5-8676-1728-X (projector headlights)
•   Isuzu Alloy Bull Bar P/No 5-8676-1640-X (halogen headlights)
•   Isuzu Steel Bull Bar P/No 5-8676-1729-X (halogen headlights)

Isuzu D-Max
November 2014-October 2016

Part numbers:
•   Isuzu steel bullbar Part No. 5867605811
•   Isuzu alloy bullbar Part No. 5867605791

Isuzu D-Max
November 2013-October 2016

Part numbers:
•   Isuzu steel bullbar Part No. 5867605811
•   Isuzu alloy bullbar Part No. 5867605791

Mitsubishi Triton
April 2015 - onwards

Part numbers:
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350418 (alloy kit)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350418BL (alloy, black kit)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350591 (alloy kit, w/o loops)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350591BL (alloy, black kit, w/o loops)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350619 (polished)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350620 (powdercoated, black)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350673 (alloy kit, polished)
•   Mitsubishi-supplied Part No. MZ350674 (alloy kit, powdercoated)

Nissan Navara
July 2015-onwards

Part numbers:
•   Nissan steel bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE1BAU (Narrow Body)
•   Nissan steel bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE1AAU (Wide Body)
•   Nissan alloy bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE0BAU (Narrow Body)
•   Nissan alloy bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE0AAU (Wide Body)

Nissan Navara
July 2015-onwards

Part numbers:
•   Nissan steel bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE1BAU (Narrow Body)
•   Nissan steel bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE1AAU (Wide Body)
•   Nissan alloy bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE0BAU (Narrow Body)
•   Nissan alloy bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE0AAU (Wide Body)

Nissan Navara
March 2015-onwards

Part numbers:
•   Nissan steel bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE1BAU (Narrow Body)
•   Nissan steel bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE1AAU (Wide Body)
•   Nissan alloy bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE0BAU (Narrow Body)
•   Nissan alloy bullbar Part No. F2160-4KE0AAU (Wide Body)

Toyota Hilux
July 2015-July 2019

Part numbers:
Toyota Genuine Accessories

Premium Steel Bullbar Part No.:
•   PZQ2989270 / PZQ2989271 / PZQ2989272
•   PZQ2989275 / PZQ2989276 / PZQ2989277
•   PZQ2989280 / PZQ2989281 / PZQ2989282
•   PZQ2989385 / PZQ2989386 • PZQ2989395

Commercial Steel Bullbar Part No.:
•   PZQ2989325 / PZQ2989326
•   PZQ2989330/ PZQ2989331
•   PZQ2989500

Alloy Bullbar Part No.:
•   PZQ2989400 / PZQ2989401 / PZQ2989402 / PZQ2989403
•   PZQ2989405 / PZQ2989406 / PZQ2989407 / PZQ2989408
•   PZQ2989410 / PZQ2989411 / PZQ2989412 / PZQ2989413
•   PZQ2989300 / PZQ2989301 / PZQ2989302 / PZQ2989303
•   PZQ2989305 / PZQ2989306 / PZQ2989307 / PZQ2989308
•   PZQ2989310 / PZQ2989311 / PZQ2989312 / PZQ2989313
•   PZQ2989510 / PZQ2989520

Toyota Hilux
November 2013-June 2015

Part numbers:
•   SmartBar bullbar SA100

Toyota Hilux
August 2013-June 2015

Part numbers:
•   SmartBar bullbar SA100

Toyota Prado
August 2013-onwards

Part numbers:
Toyota Genuine Accessories:

•   PZQ2960630
•   PZQ2960620
•   PZQ2960660
•   PZQ2960665
•   PZQ2960670
•   PZQ2960675

Toyota Landcruiser
August 2015-onwards

Part numbers:
Toyota Genuine Accessories:

LC200 Steel Bullbar Part No.:
•   High Grade - PZQ2960645
•   Low Grade - PZQ2960640

LC200 Alloy Bullbar Part No.:
•   High Grade - PZQ2960655
•   Low Grade - PZQ2960650

Toyota Landcruiser
2013-August 2015

Part numbers:
Toyota Genuine Accessories:

LC200 Steel Bullbar Part No.:
•   High Grade - PZQ2960605
•   Low Grade - PZQ2960600

LC200 Alloy Bullbar Part No.:
•   High Grade - PZQ2960615
•   Low Grade - PZQ2960610

Toyota Fortuner
August 2015-September 2019

Part numbers:
Toyota Genuine Accessories:

Premium Steel Bullbar Part No.:
•   PZQ2989295 / PZQ2989296
•   PZQ2989335 / PZQ2989336
•   PZQ29-89365 / PZQ29-89366

Alloy Bullbar Part No.:
•   PZQ2989415 / PZQ2989416
•   PZQ2989315 / PZQ2989316
•   PZQ2989445 / PZQ2989446
•   PZQ2989345 / PZQ2989346
•   PZQ2989420 / PZQ2989421
•   PZQ2989320 / PZQ2989321

What if I want to modify my vehicle?

ANCAP crash tests new, un-modified vehicles available to Australian and New Zealand consumers. In general, ANCAP does not set requirements for, or assess, aftermarket products or vehicle modifications.

If vehicles are deemed to require modifications outside the scope of ANCAP assessment, we recommend purchasing vehicles that have been awarded a 5 star ANCAP safety rating when originally supplied. Operators should ensure the modification does not interfere with the safe and effective operation of safety features and collision avoidance technologies, and continue to meet regulatory requirements for registration and use.

Does the installation of an internal rollbar/rollcage affect a vehicles ANCAP safety rating?

ANCAP does not test vehicles with rollover protection systems (ROPS) fitted but research tests have shown that ROPS can increase the propensity for a vehicle to roll by raising the centre of gravity. ROPS can also prevent the deployment of airbags - greatly increasing the risk of serious head injuries - and may not eliminate roof crush in vehicle rollovers.

Internal ROPS may also prevent rearward displacement of the driver seat in a strike from the rear. Modern seats are designed to respond in a controlled manner to reduce the risk of whiplash injury. This can be adversely affected by an internal ROPS. There may also be a risk of head injury from contact with the ROPS during a crash. This applies to rear seat occupants as well as the driver and front passenger.

Vehicle Purchasing

What should I look for when buying a fleet or business vehicle?

The vehicle is an extension of the workplace and, just as we provide our employees with a safe workspace in the office, factory or worksite, we must also provide them with a safe vehicle.

ANCAP recommends fleets and commercial buyers choose vehicles which hold the maximum 5 star ANCAP safety rating. In addition, look for the Rating Year "datestamp" which identifies the year requirements against which a model was tested. Fleets and commercial buyers should look to purchase a 5 star vehicle with a datestamp no more than three years old.

For example, when buying a vehicle in 2018, look for a model which has either a 2018, 2017 or 2016 datestamp. This will ensure safety currency.

View our Fleet Purchasing Guide.

Testing & Assessment

In what year did Australia adopt the European crash testing standards?

The ANCAP crash test program was established in 1992 with the first ANCAP crash test results published in 1993. Euro NCAP was established in 1997 and ANCAP began testing and assessing vehicles in accordance with the Euro NCAP protocols in 1999. This was when the star rating system was introduced. Prior to this, ANCAP did not use a star rating system, rather, colour-coded body regions indicating high, medium or low injury risk were used followed by the allocation of 'Good', 'Acceptable', 'Marginal' and 'Poor' scores.

ANCAP shares common test and assessment protocols and policies with our counterparts, Euro NCAP.

Does ANCAP test for rear end collisions?

Severe rear collisions are relatively rare and usually involve being struck by a much larger vehicle. Frontal crashes and severe side impacts account for most car occupant fatalities which is one reason why ANCAP concentrates on these crash types.

Destructive rear-end crash tests are not conducted, however whiplash protection testing forms an integral part of the ANCAP test and rating process.

Does ANCAP testing consider child occupants?

Yes. From 2018, all vehicles rated by ANCAP include an assessment of Child Occupant Protection (COP). This evaluates the level of protection offered by the vehicle to child occupants seated in appropriate child restraints in the rear seats. An assessment of the vehicle’s ability to effectively accommodate a range of child restraints is also included.

Child dummies (a 6 year and a 10 year) are included in the frontal offset and side impact crash tests.

Selecting an appropriate child restraint for child occupants is also important. Separate to ANCAP, the Child Restraint Evaluation Program (CREP) provides an independent assessment on the safety of Australasian child restraints - see www.childcarseats.com.au.

Does ANCAP re-test vehicles?

In general, ANCAP does not re-test vehicle models within the same model series unless changes that would affect the rating are introduced. In these cases, vehicles may either undergo new physical crash test(s) or ANCAP may use technical evidence to determine a revised rating.

What does the "TESTED" year mean in the ANCAP safety rating logo?

The "TESTED" year listed alongside the ANCAP star rating denotes the rating year requirements against which that vehicle was tested. As vehicle safety requirements increase, it is important consumers are aware of the year requirements against which a vehicle has been tested.

ANCAP recommends consumers look for a vehicle with a 5 star ANCAP safety rating and the latest "TESTED" datestamp they can afford.

Safety Features & Technologies

Do ANCAP safety ratings take into account active safety systems?

Historically, the ANCAP safety ratings have been primarily concerned with the ability of the vehicle to protect vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users (pedestrians) from injury in the event of a crash. In recent years, the scope of the ANCAP ratings process has extended to recognise advanced driver assistance (collision avoidance) technologies such as Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Support Systems (LSS) and Speed Assistance Systems (SAS).

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